They are one of three types of contingent trade protection measures, along with anti-dumping and countervailing measures, available to wto members. The uruguay round of multilateral trade negotiations, formally concluded on 15 april 1994 in marrakesh, led to the adoption by the wto members of new agreements dealing with the major instruments of contingent protection, ie anti-dumping, countervailing and safeguard measures.
Contingent trade-protective measures background measures implemented to counteract particular adverse effects of imports in the market of the importing country, including measures aimed at unfair foreign trade practices, contingent upon the fulfilment of certain procedural and substantive requirements.
(this focus only on the reaction to dumping contrasts with the approach of the subsidies and countervailing measures agreement) the legal definitions are more precise, but broadly speaking the wto agreement allows governments to act against dumping where there is genuine (“material”) injury to the competing domestic industry. Contingent protection m easures and wto litigation umping is the practice of exporting a product for less than the cost of producing it, or for less than the “normal value” of the product on.
Article xix measures that were in effect at the time of the wto agreement's entry into force are to be terminated no later than eight years after they were first applied, or five years after the entry into force of the wto agreement, whichever comes later (article 10. The law and economics of contingent protection in the wto countervailing measures, and safeguards when discussing countervailing measures, the authors also discuss legal challenges against prohibited and/or actionable subsidies the law and economics of contingent protection in the wto, fills a gap in the international trade.
Lesson 1: measures of contingent protection, meant for corrective purposes, are now being increasingly used for legitimizing selective, unilateral protection lesson 2: anti dumping actions concern developed, developing and transition countries alike. Less likely than other measures of contingent protection to be applied to satisfy the hidden protectionist agenda of specific interest groups 1 contingent protection: general principles 11 contingent protection: what is it the fundamental principles of the gatt/wto system are reciprocity and nondiscrimination.